Economic data

1. Economic system
Change the Chinese economy much since the late seventies in the last century , from the system of central planning CSS, who was away on international trade , to a system -oriented market economy, with the participation of the private sector, dramatically, and is a major player in the global economy , even become China in 2010 the largest exporter in the world.
Reforms began in the late seventies , the phasing out of land ownership communal , to include the gradual liberalization of prices, and the decentralization of funding and give the margin of discretion of the largest state institutions , and the establishment of a banking system is diverse, and the development of securities markets, and the rapid growth of the private sector , and openness to foreign trade and investment. China has carried out reforms gradually.
In recent years , the government has renewed its support for government companies , which operate in sectors important to economic security . China is striving to make their products relevant national global competitive efficiency .
After years of maintaining a strong currency by linking them in U.S. dollars , evaluated China , in July 2005 , its currency by 2.1% against the U.S. dollar . And moved to the exchange rate regime , and to a basket of currencies . The value of the Chinese currency ( renminbi ) against the dollar , since the decoder linked to it, until it reached more than 20% , by the year 2008; except that the exchange rate has not changed much since the beginning of the global financial crisis and until June 2010 , when it allowed Beijing to resume evaluation gradual currency . Since 1978 , it was to rebuild the economy , and increase efficiency , the effect of increasing the GDP to more than ten -fold. And in relation to the foundations of purchasing power parity (PPP), based on the different prices, China, in 2012 , is the second largest economy in the world , after the United States , having surpassed Japan in 2001. According to the value of the dollar , the agricultural and industrial products superior to Chinese products the United States of America , but they come later in the service products ; But it remains China 's average per capita income is less than the global average income of individuals.
Chinese government faces several challenges hindering economic development , including:
A . Reduce the high rates of savings , depending on the decline in domestic demand .
B . The province to provide enough jobs for the tens of millions of new workers , or immigrants , or laid off from government projects.
C . Reducing corruption and other economic crimes .
D . Containment of environmental damage and social conflicts , according to the rapid economic transformation .
Economic development has occurred more rapidly in coastal provinces , compared to interior provinces , where moved nearly 250 million workers from rural towns to urban cities to find jobs by the year 2011. The demographic policy has affected Chinese birth control : " One child per family " , that China has become , now , from more countries in the world that have a large proportion of centenarians . One of the long-term problems faced by China's environmental degradation , particularly air pollution , soil erosion , low water table , especially in the north . China continues to lose arable land , due to soil erosion and economic development.
The Chinese Government is currently striving to save energy , from sources other than coal and oil, with a focus on the development of nuclear power and alternative energy.
In the years 2010/2011 , faced China's inflation large as a result of debt incentive programs , fueled by credit, has taken some measures challenging can overcome this inflation ; but the rate of GDP declined from then to below 8%, in 2012.
European economic crisis has led to the growth inhibition of China , in 2012 , and is expected to cast a shadow over the Chinese economy in 2013.
The accumulation of debt resulting from the stimulus program , especially among local governments , imaginary and real estate prices , pose a challenge for policy-makers at the moment.
The government five - year plan XII, which was adopted in March 2011 , confirms the continuation of economic reforms. He also stressed the need to increase domestic consumption , to reduce China's dependence on the import of foreign products in the future. However, China has made ​​marginal progress towards achieving the objectives of this rebalancing .
2. GDP , according to estimates in 2012
A . GDP ( purchasing power parity ) in the United States : 12.38 trillion.
B . GDP official exchange rate of the dollar : 8.25 trillion.
C . The real growth rate of GDP: 7.8%.
D . Average per capita income of the mentioned GDP ( GDP ( purchasing power parity ) in the United States of America ) : $ 9100 .
3. Sources of GDP , according to estimates in 2012
A . Agriculture: 9.7%.
B . Industry: 46.6 %.
C . Services sector : 43.7 %.
4. The labor force
A . Total: 795.4 million workers, according to estimates by the year 2012.
By the end of 2011 , the total working population , who are aged between 15-64 years , about 1.0024 billion people .
B . Distribution, according to 2008 estimates
(1) in the agriculture sector : 36.7% .
(2) in the industry: 28.7%.
(3) in the service sector : 34.6% .
5. Unemployment rate: 6.5% , according to estimates by the year 2012.
While the official unemployment rate in urban areas 4.1 %, but excludes private companies and immigrants , according to estimates by the year 2010.
6. Population below poverty line : 13.4 % , according to estimates by the year 2011 .
Note: In 2011 , China set a new poverty line when 2300 arrived in renminbi , the equivalent of $ 363 , this new standard is much higher than it was the poverty line in 2009, which means that 128 million Chinese now preparing below the poverty line .
7. Household income or consumption by percentage share of the total number of households , according to 2008 estimates
Lowest 10 %: 3.5%.
Highest 10 %: 15%.
Note: Statistical urban families only.
8. Inflation rate: 3.1% , according to estimates by the year 2012.
9. Investment: 45.9 % of GDP , according to estimates by the year 2012.
10. Budget : According to the 2012 estimates
A . Revenue: $ 1.838 trillion
B . Expenditures : $ 2.031 trillion .
11. Public debt : 38.5 % , according to estimates by the year 2011 .
12. Agriculture Products
China is the world leader in terms of the quantity of agricultural production , they produce: rice, wheat , potatoes, corn, peanuts, tea, millet, barley , apples, cotton, oil seeds , pork , and fish.
13. Industries
Mining, extraction of raw , iron , steel, aluminum, and other metals , coal , construction machinery , weapons , textiles, clothing, oil , cement , chemicals, and fertilizers; consumer goods , including shoes, toys, electronics, and food industry; transportation equipment, including cars, rail cars and locomotives , ships , aircraft , telecommunications equipment , and space ships , and satellites.
14. Industrial production growth rate : 13.9 % , according to estimates by the year 2011.
15. Electricity
A . Production : 4.722 trillion kw / h , according to estimates by the year 2011.
B . Consumption: 4.693 trillion kw / h , according to estimates by the year 2011.
C . Electricity exports : 19.06 billion kw / h , according to estimates by the year 2010.
D . Imports of electricity : 55.45 billion kw / h , according to estimates by the year 2010.
16. Crude oil
A . Production: 4.073 million barrels a day , according to estimates by the year 2011.
B . Oil exports : 50.650 barrels per day , according to estimates by the year 2011.
C . Oil imports : 5.072 million barrels a day , according to estimates by the year 2011.
D . Proved reserves: 14.7 billion barrels , according to estimates from the first of January 2012.
17. Refined oil
A . Production: 8.992 million barrels a day , according to estimates by the year 2011.
B . Consumption: 9.79 million barrels per day , according to estimates by the year 2011.
C . Exports: 623 thousand barrels per day , according to estimates by the year 2011.
D . Imports: 1.571 million barrels a day , according to estimates by the year 2011.
18. Natural Gas
A . Production: 102.7 billion cubic meters , according to estimates by the year 2011.
B . Consumption : 130.9 billion cubic meters , according to estimates by the year 2011.
C . Exports : 3.21 billion cubic meters , according to estimates by the year 2011.
D . Imports : 31.37 billion cubic meters , according to estimates by the year 2011.
E . Proved reserves: 3.1 trillion cubic meters , according to estimates from the first of January 2012.
19. Current account balance: $ 170.8 billion , according to estimates by the year 2012.
20. Exports
A . The total value of exports : 2.021 trillion, according to estimates by the year 2012.
B . Main exports : machinery, electronic products, and data processing equipment , clothing, textiles, steel, optical and medical equipment .
C . The main importing countries : the United States of America 71.1% , Hong Kong 14.1 %, Japan 7.8% , South Korea 4.4 %, Germany 4% , according to estimates by the year 2011.
21. Imports
A . Total value of imports : $ 1.78 trillion , according to estimates by the year 2012.
B . Main imports : machinery and equipment, fuel, and mineral fuels , plastics, LED screens , and medical equipment , optical, data processing equipment , organic chemicals , steel, and copper.
C . The most important exporting countries : Japan 11.2% , South Korea 9.3 % , U.S. 6.8 %, Germany 5.3% , Australia 4.6% , according to estimates by the year 2011.
22. Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $ 3.549 trillion , according to estimates by 31 December 2012.
23. External debt : 363 billion dollars , according to estimates by 31 December 2007.
24. Foreign investment in the home : $ 710.7 billion , according to estimates by 31 December 2012.
25 . National Investments Abroad: 93.75 billion, according to estimates by the year 2007.
26 . The market value of publicly traded shares: $ 3.389 trillion , according to estimates by 31 December 2011.
27 . Currency (code) : renminbi (RMB).
Note : It is also a return to the unit yuan (CNY).
28 . Exchange rate against the U.S. dollar : 6.311 renminbi , in 2012; 6.4615 renminbi , in 2011; 6.7703 renminbi , in 2010 ; 6.8314 renminbi , in 2009; 6.9385 renminbi , in 2008; 7.61 renminbi , in 2007; 7.97 renminbi , in 2006; 8.1943 renminbi , in 2005; 8.2768 renminbi , in 2004.